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They found that injury activated a quiescent population of stem cells, which expressed genes that are specific to injury-induced regeneration.

These results describe the mechanisms used by stem cells in response to injury, and may provide insight into neurogenesis and repair in other neural tissues. Co-first author and PhD Program alum Levi Gadye helps us understand the importance of this research discovery. Georgeann Sack: What do you think was the most interesting outcome of this study? Levi Gadye: In our study, olfactory stem cells showed remarkable flexibility in the fates that their descendant cells took on, ranging from support cells akin to glia and neurons to renewed, bona fide reserve stem cells.

Upon injury to the tissue, quiescent resting olfactory stem cells shift to an activated, intermediate state that is transient. Prior to this study, we knew that olfactory stem cells were responsible for regeneration of the olfactory epithelium OE , but we lacked tools for identifying the cell types that bridged quiescent stem cells with the more mature cell states. By comparing the expression of thousands of genes across many cells, we were able to re-order the cells according to their level of maturity, which cued us in to the genetic hallmarks of these previously undescribed activated stem cells, which were only present during the first 48 hours of regeneration.

LG: In this study, we were able to measure and compare the expression of all genes in individual cells collected from the regenerating OE. To accomplish this, we first needed to cleanly isolate these cells. We used a strategy called lineage tracing to permanently mark reserve stem cells with a genetically-encoded fluorescent tracer, which all descendant cells would inherit.

Then, all labeled cells were isolated from the tissue using fluorescence-activated cell sorting FACS and subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing. We hit a surprising stumbling block early on, however: in a large number of our samples, very few cells were labeled, stymying the rest of the experiment. Many a frustrated lunch break was taken to briefly ponder what had gone wrong.

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We overcame this via repetition, and I still remember how happy I was each time I saw that I had a viable sample on the FACS sorter, even though it typically meant I had to eat a very late lunch. With that said, this study was the result of a wide collaboration, and many of my colleagues handled the computational analyses that were required to make sense of the complex data I had helped to produce.

Even from the sidelines the lab bench , I know that this complementary half of the study was also quite the challenge. There are too many papers to mention, but each of these scientists pioneered techniques for labeling and analyzing stem cells that have revolutionized how we study regenerative tissues, and what we currently think about stem cells in these tissues. I also must mention this paper , by Cole Trapnell, however, because it inspired me, and my colleagues, to invest our efforts in single-cell RNA sequencing. This extensively expanded and updated edition reflects the enormous increase in our knowledge of the development of the nervous system.

Neuronal, neural stem cell and glial cell markers | Abcam

Working from a new understanding that the regionalization of stem cells occurs early in development and that this bias appears to persist even after prolonged culture, Dr. Rao has added additional chapters on olfactory epithelial stem cells and retinal stem cells, both of which differ in their properties from ventricular zone and subventricular zone-derived neural stem cells. A new chapter on cell death summarizes the important changes in the death pathway that occurs as stem cells mature.

Special attention is paid to the derivation of neural cells from embryonic stem cells.

Mini Review ARTICLE

Authoritative and up-to-date, "Neural Development and Stem Cells, Second Edition" provides neuroscientists with a handy guide to stem cells in the nervous system, tracing with great clarity the development of stem cells from differentiation to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. From Reviews of the First Edition Any interested clinician that wants a broad overview of the field should consult this text; so should anyone considering research in this exciting and rapidly developing field.

Rao is internationally renowned for his research involving human embryonic stem cells hESCs and other somatic stem cells. He has worked in the stem cell field for more than 20 years, with stints in academia, government and regulatory affairs and industry. He received his M. He next joined the National Institute on Aging as chief of the Neurosciences Section, where he studied neural progenitor cells and continued to explore his longstanding interest in their clinical potential.

He also served internationally on advisory boards for companies involved in stem cell processing and therapy, on committees including the U. For the last 17 years, Dr. Carpenter has worked on the development of cell therapies using human adult and embryonic stem cells, in academia and industry, in the United States and Canada.

She has been involved with human embryonic stem cell hESC research since the field was established. Her work involves discovery research and the translation of this research into therapeutics, including developing strategies for preclinical development and navigating the regulatory issues surrounding stem cell therapies.

Neural Development And Stem Cells (Contemporary Neuroscience) (Hardcover)

Currently Dr. Carpenter is President of Carpenter Group Consulting and works with early stage companies, academic groups and investors to translate discovery based research into stem cell therapies. She is credited with numerous publications and patents in the stem cell field. Convert currency. Add to Basket. Book Description Condition: New. Our study identifies quiescence as a key feature of old NSCs imposed by the niche and uncovers ways to activate NSCs to repair the aging brain.

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