As a choreographer, she is constantly exploring new aspects and infinite variety of ways that the body moves on stage and direct impressions that they arouse in the audience. She constantly reinterprets what she sees during the exercises. Her works try to "pull out" of dancers what is really going on in them, and the latter connect with the audience, often playfully and with humor. Throughout her work, she has concerned herself with the moving body separate from cultural context, and usually places it in empty space.
Pure nothing attracts me. All data for statistical analysis were first checked for normal distribution using Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Non-normally distributed data were log transformed prior to statistical analysis to ensure normality and homogeneity of variance.
Time course experiments such as across multiple hours or min were analysed using rep. Assessment of relative photoreceptor activity under the nm, nm, and nm wavelengths has been performed using the previously published rodent toolbox [ 15 ]. A Spectral power distribution of LED stimuli used. Three different wavelengths were used: nm violet , nm blue , and nm green.
All stimuli were confirmed using a calibrated spectrometer. The data used to make this figure can be found in S7 Data. A Mice exposed to blue nm light for 1 hr at ZT22 showed delayed sleep onset compared to green nm light.
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B Comparable to ZT14, sleep induction was delayed in response to blue light compared with green light. C Total sleep duration during the 1 h light pulse was unchanged under both lightning conditions. Horizontal black-white-black bar illustrates the light pulse condition from ZT22 until ZT23; blue symbols and histograms represent nm lighting condition, green symbols, and histograms represent nm lighting condition. The data used to make this figure can be found in S8 Data. The data used to make this figure can be found in S9 Data. The data used to make this figure can be found in S10 Data.
RU effect on sleep induction during blue light pulse. At ZT14 both animal groups were exposed to 1 hr acute blue light pulse. Mice treated with RU exhibited reduced activity compared to control group. During the light pulse, sleep induction was significantly enhanced in RU treated mice compared to the control group. The data used to make this figure can be found in S11 Data.
A Different wavelength stimuli used in this study. B Commonly used white light sources incandescent, fluorescent, and cool-white LED, which are designed to be enriched with longer wavelengths for human vision. C Daylight versus twilight data, showing the effects of the relative enrichment of blue light. The data used to make this figure can be found in S12 Data. The original video of 3 h have been cut down to 1 h and 4 min 2 min darkness before and after 1 h light pulse and accelerated 8 times.
The acute light exposure is indicated by text in the upper left corner in the video. After acute blue light exposure, WT mouse continues showing activity that lasts for 17 min and is followed by sleep induction. The general activity lasted for 14—15 min before sleep induction. Noticeable shortly before sleep induction WT mouse exhibits intensive grooming. The original video of 3 h have been cut down to 1 h and 4 min 2 min darkness before and after 1 h light pulse and accelerated eight times.
WT mouse exposed to green light shows a reduction of activity due to light exposure that is transformed to a rapid sleep induction after 2. We are grateful to Techniplast for cage production. Abstract Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep.
Author Summary Light exerts profound effects on our physiology and behaviour, setting our biological clocks to the correct time and regulating when we are asleep and we are awake. Introduction In addition to its familiar visual function the mammalian retina mediates a broad range of non-image forming responses to light, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms [ 1 ], regulation of pineal melatonin synthesis [ 2 ], pupillary light constriction [ 3 ] and the regulation of sleep [ 4 — 6 ].
Download: PPT. Fig 1. Wavelength-dependent effects on light on sleep induction and sleep duration. Fig 2. The Effects of Light on Behavioural Light Aversion Are Wavelength-Dependent To determine why sleep onset was delayed in response to blue light, we studied behavioural light aversion to investigate if different wavelengths of light were associated with increased anxiety. Fig 3. Wavelength-dependent effects on behavioural light aversion. The Effects of Light on Gene Expression Are Wavelength-Dependent To determine if the different wavelengths of light result in different effects at a molecular level, we measured the expression of the immediate early gene Fos , and the light-regulated clock genes Per1 and Per2 following a 1 h light pulse in the SCN and adrenal gland Fig 4A.
Fig 4. Wavelength-dependent effects on immediate early gene expression in the SCN and adrenal gland. Gene Induction in Response to Blue Light Is Melanopsin-Dependent Given the high-amplitude changes in gene expression in response to blue light, we next investigated whether these responses were melanopsin-dependent. The Effects of Light on Plasma Corticosterone Are Wavelength-Dependent Previous studies have shown that acute white light exposure at ZT16 produces an increase in plasma corticosterone levels related to light-induced adrenal Per1 expression [ 19 , 20 , 25 ].
Fig 6. Blocking the Action of Glucocorticoids Reduces Light-Induced Sleep Latency It is unclear whether the inhibitory effects of blue light on sleep are mediated via elevated plasma corticosterone or whether elevated corticosterone levels are a downstream consequence of the heightened state of arousal produced by this stimulus. Discussion Here, we show that sleep induction and light aversion responses in mice are differentially affected by wavelength. Fig 7. The arousal-promoting and sleep-promoting effects of nocturnal light exposure in mice depend upon different neural pathways.
Behavioural Light Aversion Light aversion was measured in naive mice using a dark chamber light chamber paradigm as previously reported [ 53 ]. SCN Collection After 1 hr light pulse, animals were killed under dim light by cervical dislocation. Measurement of Plasma Corticosterone Trunk blood was collected in microfuge tube containing anticoagulant EDTA 10 ul for ul blood , kept for 10 min on ice and centrifuged.
Calculation of Effects of Polychromatic Light Sources To determine the light available to the different photoreceptors of the mouse retina for the different wavelength stimuli used in this study as well as white light sources, the Rodent Toolbox v1.
Supporting Information. S1 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for Fig 1A—1C and underlying raw values used to generate averages for sleep profiles, sleep latency, and sleep duration in WT mice.
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S2 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for Fig 2A—2E and underlying raw values to generate averages for sleep profiles, sleep latency, and sleep duration in WT- and melanopsin-deficient mice. S3 Data.
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Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for Fig 3B—3E and underlying raw values to generate averages for time spent in the hidden zone in the 1st minute and in the following 9 min. S4 Data. S5 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for Fig 5A—5B and underlying raw values of optical density OD and corticosterone concentration to generate averages for corticosterone concentration.
S6 Data. S7 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data to generate S1A Fig spectral power distribution of LED stimuli used and S1B Fig relative photoreceptor activity produced by nm, nm, and nm. S8 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for S2A—S2C Fig and underlying raw values to generate averages for sleep profiles, sleep latency and sleep duration under blue and green light exposure at ZT S9 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for S3A—S3F Fig and underlying raw values to generate averages for white light effect on sleep profiles, sleep latency, and sleep duration in WT- and melanopsin-deficient mice as well as for violet, blue, and green light effect on sleep profiles, sleep latency, and sleep duration in melanopsin-deficient mice.
S10 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing data for latency to first entry during behavioural light aversion in WT mice S4 Fig. S11 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for S5 Fig and underlying raw values to generate averages for sleep profiles affected by RU and vehicle treatment under blue light exposure. S12 Data. Excel spreadsheet containing, in separate sheets, data for relative alpha opic lux using white light sources incandescent S6A Fig , fluorescent and cool-white LED S6B Fig as well as daylight versus twilight data S6C Fig.
S1 Fig. Different wavelength stimuli used in this study. S2 Fig. Effects of different wavelength light on sleep at ZT S3 Fig. S4 Fig. Latency to first entry during behavioural light aversion. S5 Fig. Prolonged sleep latency in response to blue light is dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation.
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S6 Fig. Light available to different retinal photoreceptors under different lighting conditions.
S1 Video. Video demonstrates behavioural response to acute blue nm light exposure in WT mouse. S2 Video. Video demonstrates behavioural response to acute green nm light exposure in WT mouse. S3 Video. S4 Video. Acknowledgments We are grateful to Techniplast for cage production. References 1. Regulation of mammalian circadian behavior by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors. Regulation of the mammalian pineal by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors. Characterization of an ocular photopigment capable of driving pupillary constriction in mice. Nature neuroscience. Rods-cones and melanopsin detect light and dark to modulate sleep independent of image formation.
The acute light-induction of sleep is mediated by OPN4-based photoreception. PLoS Biol. Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells: architecture, projections, and intrinsic photosensitivity. A novel human opsin in the inner retina. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Melanopsin in cells of origin of the retinohypothalamic tract. Melanopsin Opn4 requirement for normal light-induced circadian phase shifting.
Role of melanopsin in circadian responses to light. Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod-cone input to non-image-forming vision. Multiple hypothalamic cell populations encoding distinct visual information. The Journal of physiology. Responses of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons to light and dark adaptation: relative contributions of melanopsin and rod-cone inputs.
Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age. Trends in neurosciences. Melanopsin-dependent nonvisual responses: evidence for photopigment bistability in vivo. Journal of biological rhythms. Irradiance encoding in the suprachiasmatic nuclei by rod and cone photoreceptors. Melanopsin-driven light adaptation in mouse vision.
Current biology: CB. Light activates the adrenal gland: timing of gene expression and glucocorticoid release. Cell metabolism. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is critical for circadian regulation of glucocorticoids. Stress-induced changes in sleep in rodents: models and mechanisms. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. Bridges CD. Visual pigments of some common laboratory mammals. Mechanisms of spectral tuning in the mouse green cone pigment.
Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light. The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids is regulated by a gating mechanism residing in the adrenal cortical clock. Retinal input to the sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic nucleus in the rat. Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception. Light stimulates the mouse adrenal through a retinohypothalamic pathway independent of an effect on the clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature reviews Neuroscience. Glucocorticoid receptors in the locus coeruleus mediate sleep disorders caused by repeated corticosterone treatment. Scientific reports. Colour as a signal for entraining the mammalian circadian clock. A broad role for melanopsin in nonvisual photoreception. Schmidt TM, Kofuji P. Differential cone pathway influence on intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell subtypes. Homeostatic, circadian, and emotional regulation of sleep. Learn More Related Issues Specifics.
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Resources Find an Expert. The butcher slashed out and the body shape was rising, and it soon fell on the pillar. The boy is looking at him, his eyes revealing the fierceness of the beast. Qin Mu is expression is slightly moving, and the power of the demon teaching is too large. Start Here. Diagnosis and Tests. Prevention and Risk Factors. Treatments and Therapies. Related Issues. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Statistics and Research. Clinical Trials.
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