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The dispute in the chancery cause William A. Burwell vs. The purchaser, William A. The bond signified a promise to pay before the end of a month period. Slaves were often bought and sold as part of estates, even throughout the Civil War. However, the interesting part of this transaction was that the war was quickly coming to an end. Confederate troops under General Robert E. Portsmouth, Virginia, occupied by the Union army, was the scene of a wedding in November Traditional wisdom has always held that not many pre chancery suits managed to survive the burnings of Elizabeth City County now the City of Hampton in the Revolutionary War, War of , Civil War, and the great Richmond evacuation fire that consumed many locality records sent to the capital for safekeeping.

While not all of the records that should have existed still survive, it is fortunate that suits from Elizabeth City County dating and prior were discovered as part of this processing project allowing for a richer portrait of the locality to emerge. The earliest surviving suit is that of John Hunt and wife vs. William Hunter , , and concerns the estate of William Hunter.

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The suit, which commenced in , was continued for several years until it was finally sent on to the General Court in Richmond in The Library of Virginia has completed the digitization and transcription of the last of the cohabitation registers in its possession, the Henry County Cohabitation Register, Others have already been transcribed and are available in the cohabitation register digitization project via Virginia Memory.

For African-American genealogical researchers, the names contained herein provide priceless clues to retracing their ancestors. Cohabitation registers imparted legal legitimacy to African-American marriages and children.

This was also the first time many of these individuals would appear in public record under their own names. Naming under the practice of slavery was fraught with power dynamics. The enslavers often gave names to the enslaved. Jennison, commenced pillaging their homes [Britton, Civil War on the Border , vol. Yet his departure was far from meaning the complete removal of all cause for anxiety, since marauding bands infested the country roundabout and were constantly setting forth, from some well concealed lair, on expeditions of robbery, devastation, and murder.

It was one of those marauding bands that in this same month of September, , sacked and in part burnt Humboldt, for which dastardly and quite unwarrantable deed, James G. Blunt, acting under orders from Lane, took speedy vengeance; and the world was soon well rid of the instigator and leader of the outrage, the desperado, John Matthews.

Dear Sir, We have just returned from a successful expedition into the Indian Country, And I thought you would be glad to hear the news. Probably you know that Mathews, formerly an Indian Trader amongst the Osages has been committing depredations at the head of a band of half breed Cherokees, all summer. He has killed a number of settlers and taken their property; but as most of them were on the Cherokee neuteral lands I could not tell whether to blame him much or not, as I did not understand the condition of those lands.

A few days ago he came up to Humbolt and pillaged the town. Lane ordered the home guards, composed mostly of old men, too old for regular service, to go down and take or disperse this company under Mathews. He detailed Lieut. Blunt of Montgomery's regiment to the command, and we started about strong.

We went to Humbolt and followed down through the Osage as far as the Quapaw Agency where we came up with them, about 60 strong. As soon as Lane had definite knowledge that Price had turned away from the border and was moving northward, he determined to follow after and attack. We found on Mathews a Commission from Ben.

McCulloch, authorizing him to enlist the Quapaw and other Indians and operate on the Kansas frontier. The Osage Indians are loyal, and I think most of the others would be if your Agents were always ready to speak a word of confidence for our Government, and on hand to counteract the influence of the Secession Agents. There is no more danger in doing this than in any of the Army service.

If an Agent is killed in the discharge of his duty, another can be appointed the same as in any other service. A few prompt Agents, might save a vast amount of plundering which it is now contemplated to do in Kansas. McCulloch promises his rangers, and the Indians that he will winter them in Kansas and expel the settlers.

I can see the Indians gain confidence in him precisely as they loose it in us. It need somebody amongst them to represent our power and strength and purposes, and to give them courage and confidence in the U. There is another view which some take and you may take the same, i. I can only say that whatever the Government determines on the people here will sustain. The President was never more popular. He is the President of the Constitution and the laws. So far as I can learn from personal inquiry, the Indians are not yet committed to active efforts against the Gov. Dear Sir: After receiving the cattle and making arrangements for their keeping at Leroy I went and paid a visit to the Ruins of Humboldt which certainly present a gloomy appearance.

All the best part of the town was burnt. Thurstons House that I had rented for an office tho near half a mile from town was burnt tho his dwelling and mill near by were spared. All my books and papers that were there were lost. My trunk and what little me and my son had left after the sacking were all burnt including to Land Warrents one acres and one Our Minne Rifle and ammunition Saddle bridle, etc About 4 or 5 Hundred Sacks of Whitney's Corn were burnt.

As soon as I can I will try to make out a list of the Papers from the cont. Governor Robinson was much opposed to any such provocative and apparently purposeless action, no one knowing better than he Lane's vindictive mercilessness. Lane persisted notwithstanding Robinson's objections and, for the time being, found his policies actually endorsed by Prince at Fort Leavenworth.

On the twenty-second, having made a detour for the purpose of destroying some of his opponent's stores, he performed the atrocious and downright inexcusable exploit of burning Osceola. Thus had the foolish Federal practice of acting in. Department [that] were burnt. As I had some at Leavenworth I cannot do so til I see what is there. As Mr. Hutchinson is not here I leave this morning for the Kaw Agency to endeavour to carry out your Instructions there and will return here as soon as I get through there. They are building some stone houses here and I am much pleased with the result.

The difference in cost is not near so much as we expected but I will write you fully on a careful examination as you requested. Very respectfully your obedient Servant. Each worked upon a campaign of its own. For a man, temperamentally constituted as Lane was, warfare had no terrors and its votaries, no scruples. The grim chieftain as he has been somewhat fantastically called, was cruel, indomitable, and disgustingly licentious, a person who would have hesitated at nothing to accomplish his purpose.

It was to be expected, then, that he would see nothing terrible in the letting loose of the bad white man, the half-civilized Indian, or the wholly barbarous negro upon society. He believed that the institution of slavery should look out for itself and, like Governor Robinson, Senator Pomeroy, Secretary Cameron, John. He advocated immediate emancipation both as a political and a military measure. There was no doubt by this time that Lane had it in mind to utilize the Indians.

In the dog days of August, when he was desperately marshaling his brigade, the Indians presented themselves, in idea, as a likely military contingent. The various Indian agents in Kansas were accordingly communicated with and Special Agent Augustus Wattles authorized to make the needful preparations for Indian enlistment.

He was then recruiting among all kinds of people, the more hot-blooded the better. His energy was likened to frenzy and the more sober-minded took alarm. It was the moment for his political opponents to interpose and Governor Robinson from among them did interpose, being firmly convinced that Lane, by his intemperate zeal and by his guerrilla-like fighting was provoking Missouri to reprisals and thus precipitating upon Kansas the very troubles that he professed to wish to ward off.

For a full discussion of the progress of the movement, see Abel, American Indian as Slaveholder and Secessionist , ff. On the third he was known to have left Warrensburg, ostensibly to join McCulloch in Bates County and, on the eighth, he was reported as still proceeding in a southwestwardly direction, possibly to attack Fort Scott. On the evening of the eighth, a large meeting was held in Stockton's Hall to consider the whole situation and, amidst great enthusiasm, Lane was importuned to go to Washington, there to lay the case of the piteous need of Kansas, in actuality more imaginary than real, before the president.

Nothing loath to assume such responsibility but not finding it convenient to leave his military task just then, Lane resorted to letter-writing. Chief among the papers against Robinson, in the matter of his longstanding feud with Lane, was the Daily Conservative with D. Wilder as its editor. Another anti-Robinson paper was the Lawrence Republican. The Cincinnati Gazette was decidedly friendly to Lane. Lane outlined his plan for a separate department in his speech in Stockton's Hall [ Daily Conservative , October 9, ]. Stanton contesting the seat, a bitter partisan fight was in prospect, a not altogether welcome diversion.

Lane's efforts towards securing Indian enlistment did not stop with soliciting the Kansas tribes. Thoroughly aware, since the time of his sojourn at Fort Scott, if not before, of the delicate situation in Indian Territory, of the divided allegiance there, and of the despairing cry for help that had gone forth from the Union element to Washington, he conceived it eminently fitting and practicable that that same Union element should have its loyalty put to good uses and be itself induced to take up arms in behalf of the cause it affected so ardently to endorse.

To an ex-teacher among the Seminoles, E. Carruth, was entrusted the task of recruiting. Daily Conservative , November 1, , gives Robinson the credit of inciting Stanton to contest the seat. It was precarious and had been so almost from the beginning. The withdrawal of troops from the frontier posts had left the Territory absolutely destitute of the protection solemnly guaranteed its inhabitants by treaty with the United States government. Appeal to the War Department for a restoration of what was a sacred obligation had been without effect all the summer. Southern emissaries had had, therefore, an entirely free hand to accomplish whatever purpose they might have in mind with the tribes.

Mix, acting commissioner of Indian affairs in the absence of William P. Dole, who was then away on a mission to the Kansas tribes, again begged the War Department to look into matters so extremely urgent. National honor would of itself have dictated a policy of intervention before. Secretary Cameron's reply to Secretary Smith's first request was uncompromising in the extreme and prophetic of his persistent refusal to recognize the obligation resting upon the United States to protect its defenceless "wards.

Although his refusal to keep faith with the Indians is not usually cited among the things making for Cameron's unfitness for the office of Secretary of War, it might well and justifiably be. No student of history questions to-day that the appointment of Simon Cameron to the portfolio of war, to which Thaddeus Stevens had aspirations [Woodburn, Life of Thaddeus Stevens , ], was one of the worst administrative mistakes Lincoln ever made. It was certainly one of the four cabinet appointment errors noted by Weed [ Autobiography , ]. The next month, October, nothing at all having been done in the interval, Dole submitted to Secretary Smith new evidence of a most alarmingly serious state of affairs and asked that the president's attention be at once elicited.

The apparent result was that about the middle of November, Dole was able to write with confidence—and he was writing at the request of the president—that the United States was prepared to maintain itself in its authority over the Indians at all hazards. Boastful words those were and not to be made good until many precious months had elapsed and many sad regrettable scenes enacted. In early November occurred the reorganization of the Department of the West which meant the formation of a Department of Kansas separate and distinct from a Department of Missouri, an arrangement that afforded ample opportunity for a closer attention to local exigencies in both states than had heretofore been possible or than, upon trial, was subsequently to be deemed altogether desirable.

It necessarily increased the chances for local patronage and exposed military matters to the grave danger of becoming hopelessly entangled with political. The need for change of some sort was, however, very evident and the demand for it, insistent. If the southern Indians were not soon secured, they were bound to menace, not only Kansas, but Colorado and to help materially in blocking the way to Texas, New Mexico,. On conditions in Colorado Territory, the following are enlightening: ibid. Their own domestic affairs had now reached a supremely critical stage.

In addition to what may be obtained on the subject from the first volume of this work, two letters of slightly later date furnish particulars, as do also the records of a council held by Agent Cuther with certain chiefs at Leroy. Dear Sir, It is with reluctance that I again intrude on your valuable time. But I am induced to do so by the conviction that the subject of our Indian relations is really a matter of serious concern: as involving the justice and honor of our own Government, and the deepest interests—the very existence, indeed—of a helpless and dependent people.

And knowing that it is your wish to be furnished with every item of information which may, in any way, throw light on the subject, I venture to trouble you with another letter. Mico Hat-ki, the Creek man referred to in my letter of Oct. He was accompanied, to this place, by one of his former companions, but had left some of their present company at LeRoy. They were expecting to have a meeting with some of the Indians, at LeRoy, to consult about the proper course to be pursued, in order to protect the loyal and peaceable Indians, from the hostility of the disaffected, who have become troublesome and menacing in their bearing.

With this man and his companion, I had considerable conversation, and find that the Secessionists and disaffected Half-breeds are carrying things with a high hand. While the loyal Indians are not in a condition to resist them, by reason of the proximity of an overwhelming rebel force. From them repeating their former statements, regarding the defection of certain parties, and the loyalty of others, with the addition of some further particulars I learn the following facts: Viz.

That M Kennard, the Principal Chief of the Lower Creeks, most of the McIntoshes, George Stidham, and others have joined the rebels, and organized a military force in their interest; for the purpose of intimidating and harrassing the loyal Indians. They name some of the officers, but are not sufficiently conversant with military terms to distinguish the different grades, with much exactness.

Pas-co-fa, the second chief, stands neutral. Fraser McClish, though himself a Chickasaw, has raised a company cont. There was need for it to do that,. The Choctaws are divided in much the same way as the other Tribes, the disaffected being principally among the Half-breeds. The full Indians are loyal to the Government, as are some of the mixed bloods also, and here, I remark, from my own knowledge, that this Governor Harris was the first to propose the adoption of concerted measures, among the Southern Tribes, on the subject of Secession.

This was instantly and earnestly opposed by John Ross, as being out of place, and an ungrateful violation of the Treaty obligations, by which the Tribes had placed themselves under the exclusive protection of the United States; and, under which, they had enjoyed a long course of peace and prosperity. They say, there are about four hundred Secessionists, among the Cherokees.

History of the United States (1849–1865)

But whether organized or not, I did not understand. I presume they meant such as were formerly designated by the term Warriors, somewhat analogous to the class among ourselves, who are fit for military duty, though they may or may not be actually organized and under arms. So that the Thousands of Indians in the secession papers, as figuring in the armies, are enormous exaggerations; and most of them sheer fabrications. Albert Pike, of Little Rock, boasts of having visited and made treaty alliances with the Comanches, and other tribes, on behalf of the "Confederate States," but the Indians do not believe him.

And, in blunt style, say "he tells lies. They make favorable mention of O-poth-le-yo-ho-lo, an ex-Creek Chief, a true patriot of former days. But, it seems, he has been molested and forced to leave his home to avoid the annoyance and violence of the rebel party. There are, however, more than three thousand young men, of the warrior class, who adhere to his principles, and hold true faith and allegiance to the United States. They say also that John Ross is not a Secessionist, and that there are more than four thousand patriots among the Cherokees, who are true to the Government of the United States.

This agrees, substantially, with my own personal knowledge, unless they have changed within a very short time, which is not at all probable, as the Cherokees, of this class, are pretty fully and correctly informed about the nature of the controversy. And I may add, that much of their information is, through one channel and another, communicated to the Creeks, and much of their spirit too. On the whole, judging from the most reliable information, I have been able to obtain, I feel assured that the Full Indians of the Creeks, Cherokees, Seminoles, and the small bands living in the Creek Nation, are faithful to the Government.

And the same, to a great extent, is cont. And were it not for the proximity of the rebel force, the loyal Indians would put down the Secession movement among themselves, at once. Or rather, they would not have suffered it to rise at all. The loyal Indians say, they wish "to stand by their Old Treaties. And I have no doubt that, as soon as the Government can afford them protection, they will be ready, at the first call, to manifest, by overt action, the loyalty to which they are pledged. They are looking, with great anxiety and hope, for the coming of the great army.

And I have no doubt that a friendly communication from the Government, through the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, would have a powerful effect in removing any false impressions, which may have been made, on the ignorant and unwary, by the emissaries of Secession, and to encourage and reassure the loyal friends of the Government, who, in despair of timely aid, may have been compelled to yield any degree of submission, to the pressure of an overwhelming force. I was expecting to see these Indians again, and to have had further conversation with them.

Hearing this, I hesitated about troubling you with this letter at all, as, in that case, you would see them yourself. But I have concluded to send it, as affording me an opportunity to express a few thoughts, with which it would hardly be worth while to occupy a separate letter. I rec.

Carruth, saying that he was going to Washington, with a delegation of Southern Indians, and I suppose Mico Hatki and his companions are that Delegation, or at least a part of them. I will just say in regard to Mr. Carruth that I was acquainted with him, several years ago, as a teacher in the Cherokee Nation. He afterwards went to the Creek Nation, I think , as teacher of a Government school, and I believe, has been there ever since. If so, he must know a good deal about the Creeks. Carruth bore a good character.

I think he married one of the Missionary ladies of the Presbyterian Mission. All well and doing well. Hear you are having trouble among yourselves—fighting one another, but you and we are friendly. Our cont. Mode Cunard and you were here and had the talk with Gen. Pike; we still hold to the talk we made with Gen. Pike, and are keeping the treaty in good faith, and are looking for him back again soon. We look upon you and Mode Cunard and Gen. Pike as brothers. Pike told us at the council that there were but few of us here, and if any thing turned up to make it necessary he would protect them.

We are just as we were when Gen. Pike was up here and keeping the treaty made with him. Our brothers the wild Comanches have been in and are friendly with us. All the Indians here have but one heart. Our brothers, the Texans, and the Indians are away fighting the cold weather people. We do not intend to go North to fight them, but if they come down here, we will all wait to drive them away. Some of my people are one-eyed and a little crippled, but if the enemy comes here they will all jump out to fight him. Pea-o-popicult, the principal Kiowa chief, has recently visited the reserve, and expressed friendly intentions, and has gone back to consult the rest of his people, and designs returning.

Washington Jim Pockmark. Dear Sir: Enclosed I send you a statement of delegation of Creeks, Chickasaw, and Kininola who are here for assistance from the Government. You will see by the enclosed that I have held a Council with them the result of which I send verbatim. They have travelled some or miles to get here, had to take an unfrequented road and were in momentary fear of their lives not because the secessionists were stronger than the Union party in their nation, but because the secessionists were on the alert and were determined that there should be no communication with the Government.

They underwent a great many privations in getting here, had to bear their own expenses, which as some of them who were up here a short time ago have travelled in coming and going some miles was considerable. I am now supplying them with everything they need on my own responsibility. They dare not return to their people unless troops cont.

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Department of Kansas was open to certain objections, no doubt; but, to Lane, whose forceful personality had. I write to you from Topeka and urge that steps be taken to render them the requisite protection. I am satisfied that the Department will see the urgent necessity of carrying out the Treaty stipulations and giving these Indians who are so desirous of standing firm by the Government and who have resisted so persistently all the overtures of the secessionists, the assistance and protection which is their due.

I am informed by these Indians that John Ross is desirous of standing by the Government, and that he has warriors who are willing to do battle for the cause of the Union. Lane is anxious to do something to relieve the Union Indians in the southern tribes, by taking prompt and energetic steps at this time—it can be done with little expense and but little trouble, while the benefit to be derived will be incalculable. Let me beg of you and more that the matter be laid before the Department and the proper steps be taken to give the Indians that protection which is their due and at the same time take an important step in sustaining the supremacy of the Government.

Your obedient Servant, GEO. Cutler, who was unable to visit their Country owing to the rebellion existing in the Country, the following talk was had by the Chiefs of said nation, eight in number—Four Creeks, Two Seminoles, Two Chickasaws. Oke-Tah-hah-shah-haw-choe, Chief of Creek Upper District says, he will talk short words this time—wants to tell how to get trouble in Creek nation. First time Albert Pike come in he made great deal trouble. That man told Indian that the Union people would come and take away property and would take away land—now you sleep, you ought to wake up and attend to your own property.

Tell them there ain't no U. Pike makes the half cont. Then that is so—but as for himself he don't believe him yet. Then he thought the old U. Wont go against the U. Never knew that Creek have an agent here until he come and see him and that is why I have come among this Union people. Have come in and saw my agent and want to go by the old Treaty. Wants to get with U. Army so that I can get back to my people as Secessionists will not let me go. Wants the Great Father to send the Union Red people and Troops down the Black Beaver road and he will guide them to his country and then all his people will be for the Union—That he cannot get back to his people any other way—Our Father to protect the land in peace so that he can live in peace on the land according to the Treaty—At the time I left my union people I told them to look to the Beaver Road until I come.

Promised his own people that the U. Army would come back the Beaver Road and wants to go that way—The way he left his country his people was in an elbow surrounded by secessions and his people is not strong enough against them for Union and that is the reason he has come up for help—Needed guns, powder, lead to take to his own people. Own people for the Union about warriors all Creeks—Needed now clothing, tents for winter, tools, shirts, and every thing owned by whites,—wants their annuity as they need it now—The Indians and the Whites among us have done nothing against any one but the Secessionists have compelled us to fight and we are willing to fight for the Union.

Creek half breeds joined secessionists. Says—Will talk short words—have had fever and sick—Secessionists told him no more U. The secessionists plague him so much talk he asks for his country that the army go down and that is what his people wants same as Creek and Seminole—Have seen the agent of the Creeks but have not seen our agent but want to see him—wants agent sent—He has always done no wrong—Secessionists would not let him live in peace—and if have to fight all his people will fight for Union—That is all the chance that he can save his lands and property to children—by old U.

Says: Pike went among the Seminoles and tell them the same as he told the Creek. The talk of Pike he did not believe and told him so himself—Some of my people did believe Pike and did join the secessionists also he believed the old U. Twelve towns are for the Union. This is the request of our people of our Great Father They need their annuity have not had any for nearly a year and want it sent. We the Chiefs of the three nations Creeks, Chickasaws and Seminoles who are of this delegation and all for the Union and the majority of our people are for the Union and agree in all that has been said by the Chiefs who have made this talk, and believe all they have said to be true—.

To further his scheme for Indian enlistment, Lane had projected an inter-tribal council to be held at his own headquarters. Carruth worked especially to that end. The man in charge of the Southern Superintendency, W. Coffin, had a similar plan in mind for less specific reasons.

His idea was to confer with the representatives of the southern tribes with reference to Indian Territory conditions generally. It was part of the duty appertaining to his office. Humboldt was the place selected by him for the meeting; but Leroy, being better protected and more accessible, was soon substituted. The sessions commenced the. I do certify that the within statement of the different chiefs were taken before me at a council held at my house at the time stated and that the talk of the Indian was correctly taken down by a competent clerk at the time.

Their acquaintance dated, if not from the antebellum days when Hunter was stationed at Fort Leavenworth and was not particularly magnanimous in his treatment of Southerners, then from those when he had charge, by order of General Scott, of the guard at the White House. Upon assuming command of the Department of Kansas, General Hunter took full cognizance of the many things making for disquietude and turmoil in the country now under his jurisdiction. Indian relations became, of necessity, matters of prime concern. Three things bear witness to this fact, Hunter's plans for an inter-tribal council at Fort Leavenworth, his own headquarters; his advocacy of Indian enlistment, especially from among the southern Indians; and his intention, early avowed, of bringing Brigadier-general James W.

Denver into military prominence and of entrusting to him the supervisory command in Kansas. In some respects, no man could have been found equal to Denver in conspicuous fitness for such a position. He had served as commissioner of Indian affairs under Buchanan and, although a Virginian by birth, had had a large experience with frontier life—in Missouri, in the Southwest during the Mexican War, and in California. He had also measured swords with Lane. It was in squatter-sovereignty days when, first as secretary and then as governor of Kansas Territory, he had been in a position to become intimately acquainted with the intricacies of Lane's true character and had had both occasion and opportunity to oppose some of that worthy's autocratic and thoroughly lawless.

Denver was twice appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs by Buchanan. For details as to his official career, see Biographical Congressional Directory , , and Robinson, Kansas Conflict , With the second summons to command, came opportunity for Lane's vindictive animosity to be called into play. Historically, it furnished conclusive proof, if any were needed, that Lane had supreme power over the distribution of Federal patronage in his own state and exercised that power even at the cost of the well-being and credit of his constituency.

When Congress began its second session in December, the fight against Lane for possession of his seat in the Senate proceeded apace; but that did not, in the least, deter him from working for his brigade. His scheme now was to have it organized on a different footing from that which it had sustained heretofore. His influence with the administration in Washington was still very peculiar and very considerable, so much so, in fact, that President Lincoln, without taking expert advice and without consulting either the military men, whose authority would necessarily be affected, or the civil officials in Kansas, nominated him to the Senate as brigadier-general to have charge of troops in that state.

The Leavenworth Daily Conservative seemed fairly jubilant over the prospect of Lane's early return to military activity. The following extracts from its news items and editorials convey some such idea:. He has no idea of doing anything that shall oblige Governor Robinson and his appointee Stanton cont. Cameron had his first consultation with Lane regarding the matter, January second, and was given by him to understand that everything had been done in strict accordance with Hunter's own wishes. Lincoln, when appealed to, unhesitatingly repudiated every suggestion of the idea that it had ever been his intention to give Lane an independent command or to have Hunter, in any sense, superseded.

The need for sending relief to the southern Indians, which, correctly interpreted meant, of course, reasserting authority over them and thus removing a menacing and impending danger from the Kansas border, had been one of Lane's strongest arguments in gaining his way with the administration. The larger aspect of his purpose was, however, the one that appealed to Commissioner Dole, who, as head of the Indian Bureau, seems fully to have appreciated the responsibility that.

Martin F. Conway, the Kansas representative in Congress, was under no misapprehension as to Lane's true position; for Lincoln had told him personally that Lane was to be under Hunter [ Daily Conservative , February 6, ]. The urgency of the Indian call for help and the. Lane's expedition was variously referred to as "the Southern Expedition," "the Cherokee Expedition," "the great jayhawking expedition," and by many another name, more or less opprobrious.

Representations of the great need of the Indians for assistance were made to the government by all sorts of people. Agent after agent wrote to the Indian Office. The Reverend Evan Jones wrote repeatedly and on the second of January had sent information, brought to him at Lawrence by two fugitive Cherokees, of the recent battle in which the loyalists under Opoethle-yo-ho-la had been worsted, at the Big Bend of the Arkansas [Indian Office Special Files, no.

In the early winter, a mixed delegation of Creeks and others had made their way to Washington, hoping by personal entreaty to obtain succor for their distressed people, and justice. Hunter had issued a draft for their individual relief [ ibid. It was not so easy for them to get passes coming back. Application was made to the War Department and referred back to the Interior [ ibid.

The estimate, somewhat inaccurately footed up, of the total expense of the return journey as submitted by agents Cutler and Carruth was,. Dole had not encouraged the delegation to come on to Washington.

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He pleaded lack of funds and the wish that they would wait in Fort Leavenworth and attend Hunter's inter-tribal council so that they might go back to their people carrying definite messages of what was to be done cont. Hunter had previously shown much sympathy for the Indians in their distress and also a realization of the strategic importance. Dole had been forwarned of their intention to appear in Washington by the following letter:. Sir: On my arrival in St. Louis I found Gen'l Hunter at the Planters House and delivered the message to him that you had placed in my hands for that purpose. He seemed fully satisfied with your letter and has acted on it accordingly.

I recd from Gen'l Hunter a letter for Mr. Cutler, and others of this place, all of which I have delivered. Having found Cutler here, he having been ordered by Lane to move the council from Leroy to Fort Scott. But from some cause which I have not learned he has brought the chiefs all here to the Fort, where they are now quartered awaiting the arrival of Gen'l Hunter.

He has with him six of the head chiefs of the Creek, Seminole and Cherokee Nations, and tells me that they are strong for the Union. He also says that John Ross Cherokee is all right but dare not let it be known, and that he will be here if he can get away from the tribe. These chiefs all say they want to fight for the Union, and that they will do so if they can get arms and ammunition. Gen'l Hunter has ordered me to await his arrival here at which time he will council with these men, and report to you the result.

Steven Conn is the W. Previously he was a member of the history department at Ohio State University. He teaches intellectual, cultural, urban, and public history. He is also the founding editor of the monthly online magazine, Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective. His forthcoming book tracks how business schools have consistently failed to live up to their promises to train a professional class of businessmen and is titled "Nothing Succeeds Like Failure: The Sad History of American Business Schools.

His research considers racism and the American presidency, capitalism, racial segregation, West Indian immigration to the United States, and the relationship between community building and real estate development. Wall Award. In addition to teaching, writing, and speaking widely, Connolly serves on the executive board of the Urban History Association. Blanche Wiesen Cook. For more than twenty years, she produced and hosted her own program for Pacifica Radio and has appeared frequently as a television news commentator.

Stephanie Coontz. Stephanie Coontz teaches history and family studies at The Evergreen State College and is the director of research and public education for the Council on Contemporary Families. She is interested in the trade-offs and paradoxes of historical changes in family life, gender relations, and intimate partnerships. Coontz has appeared on numerous television news and talk programs, including "The Colbert Report," "Oprah," "The Today Show," and msnbc 's "The Cycle," and frequently offers media training workshops for academics.

She also regularly writes op-eds for the New York Times and cnn. Click here for more information about Stephanie Coontz. The recipient of several prestigious honors including the University of Virginia's Carter G. She is currently working on a book that examines mental illness during the era of slavery. A popular public speaker, Cooper Owens has lectured domestically and abroad to diverse audiences.

She has published essays, book chapters, and popular blog pieces on a number of issues that concern African American experiences. She has also made a number of appearances on national media outlets as an expert on issues of race, medicine, and U. Click here for more information about Deirdre Cooper Owens. Seth Cotlar is a professor of history at Willamette University. Her writings range widely over questions concerning women, gender, marriage, feminism, and citizenship from the eighteenth century to the contemporary United States.

Her interests also include the history of sexuality, social movements, political culture, and law. Her current project concerns Americans who came of age in the s and shaped their lives internationally. Edward Countryman. Jefferson Cowie. Stahlman Professor at Vanderbilt University. Cowie's essays and opinion pieces have appeared in the New York Times , the American Prospect , the New Republic , Dissent , and other popular publications. He is currently working on a short book on the New Deal and a long book on the global history of the wage.

Karen L. Cox is a professor of history at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte where she teaches courses in American history with a focus on southern history and culture. She has been interviewed by journalists from around the world for her expertise on Confederate monuments and Confederate culture more broadly. Her new project will examine the Rhythm Club fire in Natchez, Mississippi. More than members of the African American community perished in this fire in April , leading the Chicago Defender to call it "the worst tragedy in the history of the race.

Click here for more information about Karen L. Margaret S. Margaret Creighton is a professor of history at Bates College. She has revisited the story of the deepwater sailing ship, the Civil War battlefield, and, most recently, the baseball field. This book was a runner-up for the Lincoln Prize and named as one of the five best books on Gettysburg by the Wall Street Journal. Click here for more information about Margaret S. Joseph Crespino. His research focuses on the political and social history of twentieth-century America, particularly southern history and the United States since He teaches courses on the South since Reconstruction, the long s, politics and ideology in post—World War II America, and the southern civil rights movement.

Spencer Crew has worked at museums as well as universities over the past twenty-five years. The Clarence J. His primary area of research interest is African American history, and he has created exhibitions and written on both the Underground Railroad and the migration of African Americans to the North during and after World War I. Daniel Czitrom. He is also a coauthor of Out of Many: A History of the American People 8th edition, , which was banned from Texas high schools in Czitrom has appeared as a featured on-camera consultant for numerous documentaries and he was a historical adviser for BBC America's historical drama, "Copper.

Jane E. Dailey is an associate professor of history and law at the University of Chicago, where she teaches and writes on American political and constitutional history with a special emphasis on the South. Her writing has also appeared in the Chicago Tribune and Huffington Post. The recipient of fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies, the American Academy in Berlin, and the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, Dailey is currently finishing a book on race, sex, and the civil rights movement from emancipation to the present. Adrienne D. Adrienne Davis is vice provost and the William M.

Her scholarship emphasizes the gendered and private law dimensions of American slavery. She served on the American Historical Association's Littleton-Griswold Prize committee, chairing it for the last two years. Rebecca L. A historian of twentieth-century American culture, Rebecca L. Davis is an associate professor of history at the University of Delaware with a joint appointment in the women and gender studies department. She is the author of More Perfect Unions: The American Search for Marital Bliss , a history of marriage counseling, social science, religion, and American culture in the twentieth century.

She is currently writing a book about changing view of the self in the twentieth century and editing a collection of essays on the history of heterosexuality in North America. A former postdoctoral fellow at the Center for the Study of Religion at Princeton University, she was a visiting fellow there during the — academic year. Click here for more information about Rebecca L.

Cornelia H. Dayton teaches colonial North American history, gender in the early modern period, and U. Winner of the OAH Merle Curti Award, this work is a study of the Massachusetts practice of warning strangers and the lives of hundreds of ordinary people-on-the-move affected by it. Engaged for the past decade in exploring how mental and developmental disorders were understood and treated at the family and local levels prior to , she is also investigating poor relief, almshouses, and the lives of African New Englanders.

Philip J. Philip Deloria is a professor of history at Harvard University. His research and teaching focus on the cultural and ideological intersections of Indian and non-Indian worlds. His first book, Playing Indian , traces the tradition of white "Indian play" from the Boston Tea Party to the New Age movement, while his Indians in Unexpected Places examines the ideologies surrounding Indian people in the early twentieth century and the ways Native Americans challenged them through sports, travel, automobility, and film and musical performance.

He co-authored with Alexander Olson American Studies: A User's Guide , which offers a comprehensive treatment of the historiography and methodology of the field of American Studies. Prior to joining the faculty at Harvard, Deloria taught at the University of Colorado and at the University of Michigan where he also served as the associate dean for undergraduate education and directed the American culture and Native American studies programs.

Jennifer Delton. She studies the political, racial, and economic history of the United States in the twentieth century, and offers courses on U. She is currently writing a history of manufacturing in the twentieth-century United States. Her current research examines the early nineteenth-century experience of pregnancy, childbirth, and child-rearing in upper midwestern Ojibwe and missionary cultures. These differences add to our understanding of why the Ojibwe so firmly rejected the practices of the missionaries through to Ojibwe eyes, the missionaries practiced something close to child abuse.

Click here for more information about Catherine Denial. Sarah Deutsch. Sarah Deutsch is a professor of history at Duke University.

Dressing a 1865 Lady: Ball Attire

Her research focuses on gender, racial, and spatial formations from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. She has published extensively on gender and race relations in the U. West, particularly the Southwest, and on the urban northeast. She is currently at work on a history of the U.

West from Tracey Deutsch. Tracey Deutsch is an associate professor of history at the University of Minnesota and a coeditor of the journal Gender and History. She teaches, researches, and writes in the areas of gender and women's history, consumption, critical food studies, and capitalism. She has also published essays on the uses of women's history and women's labor in contemporary local food discourses. Her current research uses Julia Child's biography to study the emergence of food as a crucial object in middle-class life in the mid-twentieth-century United States.

She is also pursuing research on the history of the abstraction of consumer demand in economic thought. William Deverell. He has written widely on the nineteenth- and twentieth-century history of California and the far West. Click here for more information about William Deverell.

Rachel Devlin. Rachel Devlin is an associate professor of history at Rutgers University specializing in the cultural politics of girlhood, sexuality, and race in the postwar United States. In her most recent book, A Girl Stands at the Door: The Generation of Young Women Who Desegregated America's Schools , she draws on interviews and archival research to tell the stories of the many young women who stood up to enraged protestors, hostile teachers, and hateful white students every day while integrating classrooms.

Board of Education. Bruce J. Koessler Distinguished Faculty Award. Dierenfield is currently collaborating with David Gerber on a book about a U. Supreme Court case involving hearing disability and separation of church and state. In addition, he is researching a biographical study of the Rev. George W. Lee of Mississippi, the first civil rights martyr, who was assassinated in for his voter-registration campaign. Click here for more information about Bruce J. Angela D. Dillard is a professor of Afroamerican and African studies and serves as associate dean for undergraduate education for the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts at the University of Michigan.

She writes and speaks on issues of race and politics on both the left and the right sides of the political spectrum. Multicultural Conservatism in America , a critical study of the rise of political conservatism among African Americans, Latinos, women, and homosexuals. She is currently at work on a book-length study of civil rights conservatism and the interconnections of the postwar civil rights movement and the rise of the New Right.

She has built her scholarly career around the study of American Jewish history, American immigration and ethnic history, and the history of American women. She has written about the ways in which American Jews in the early twentieth century reacted to the issue of race and the suffering of African Americans, and the process by which American Jews came to invest deep meaning in New York's Lower East Side.

A Guggenheim Fellow, Diner has also written about other immigrant groups and the contours of their migration and settlement, including a study of Irish immigrant women and of Irish, Italian, and east European Jewish foodways. She is an elected member of both the Society of American Historians and the American Academy of Jewish Research, and lectures widely to scholarly and community audiences on a range of topics. Darren Dochuk. Darren Dochuk is an associate professor of history at the University of Notre Dame. His research and teaching deal primarily with the United States in the long twentieth century, with emphasis on the intersections of religion, politics, and economics, and the rising influence of the American West and Sunbelt Southwest in national life.

Hawley Prize. His current book project, tentatively titled "Anointed With Oil: God and Black Gold in America's Century," is a study of religion and politics in North America's age of oil, to the present. Erika Doss is a professor in the department of American studies at the University of Notre Dame, where she teaches courses in American, modern, and contemporary art and cultural studies. Gregory Evans Dowd. His scholarly interests include the history of the North American Indian East during the colonial, revolutionary, and early national periods. A former director of the university's Native American studies program and a former chair of the Department of American Culture, he is the author of several books, including, most recently, Groundless: Rumors, Legends, and Hoaxes on the Early American Frontier Gregory Downs.

Gregory Downs is an associate professor of history at the University of California, Davis. A specialist in post—Civil War history, he is the author most recently of After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Ends of War , which considers the use of the U. Army in occupying the South to create new forms of freedom, and a companion website Mapping Occupation , created with Scott Nesbit.

Downs is also the author of Declarations of Dependence: The Long Reconstruction of Popular Politics in the South, and has written on the interaction between the U. Civil War and the Mexican wars of the s. Also a prizewinning fiction writer, he is the author of the short-story collection Spit Baths James Downs is an associate professor of history at Connecticut College. In , he was awarded a multiyear Mellon New Directions fellowship and was a Visiting Fellow in medical anthropology at Harvard University.

His research interests include Civil War and Reconstruction; slavery and emancipation; medicine and public health; and gender and sexuality. He is the author of Stand by Me: The Forgotten History of Gay Liberation , a history of gay life in the s, and Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction , which examines the unexpected medical consequences of emancipation.

His research uncovered a smallpox epidemic which raged from to as well as the history of the Freedmen's Hospitals, the first system of federal health care. He is currently working on a history of epidemiology with a focus on the nineteenth-century international cholera epidemics. Click here for more information about James Downs. Don H. Doyle is a professor emeritus of history at the University of South Carolina. Thomas Dublin. His research has focused on both the industrial revolution in nineteenth-century New England and deindustrialization in the Middle Atlantic region in the twentieth century.

He has been been publishing online for nearly two decades and has pioneered online research and teaching applications, creating an online document archive, Women and Social Movements, International— to Present and coediting Women and Social Movements in the United States, , a major online resource in U. He is currently working to apply digital humanities techniques to these projects.

Mary L. She is writing about war, war powers, and political accountability in twentieth-century U. Click here for more information about Mary L. Erica Armstrong Dunbar. Erica Armstrong Dunbar focuses on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century African American women's history. Kathleen DuVal. Her research and writing focus on cross-cultural relations in North America. She is the author of The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent and Independence Lost: Lives on the Edge of the American Revolution , which considers the revolution from the perspectives of multiple empires and Indian nations along the Gulf Coast and in the Mississippi valley.

She is also a coeditor of Interpreting a Continent: Voices from Colonial America , a collection of primary sources that shows the diversity of colonial America. Jonathan Earle. Carolyn Eastman. Carolyn Eastman is an associate professor of history at Virginia Commonwealth University. Her research examines how men and women engaged with publications, oratory, and visual imagery during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and how those popular media affected their perceptions of self and community as well as the larger political culture.

Her current research has focused on two book-length projects. The first unfolds the strange career of an eccentric, drug-addicted, riveting orator in the early nineteenth century. The second asks how ideas about travel—elaborated in popular, richly illustrated volumes—cultivated new ways of seeing strangers and considering the self during the eighteenth century. Click here for more information about Carolyn Eastman. Michael H. Ebner is the James D. He has taught in the U. Mellon Foundation. Laura F. Her research focuses on the same issues, with a particular emphasis on the nineteenth-century U.

David C. Engerman teaches international and intellectual history at Brandeis University; in summer he will join the faculty at Yale University. Stephen D.

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Engle is a professor of history and the director of the Alan B. Nan Enstad is a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison where she teaches courses on gender history, cultural history, and the history of capitalism. Glenn T. Eskew has an abiding interest in southern history having taught the subject at Georgia State University since Currently he heads the university's World Heritage Initiative, an effort to develop a serial nomination of U. Currently he is writing a history of civil rights monuments, museums, and institutions in the Deep South. Eskew serves on a number of national, regional, state, and local boards, and promotes historic preservation and public history.

Todd Estes is a professor and chair of the history department at Oakland University. His research concentrates on early U. He is currently researching a book on the ratification debate, tentatively entitled "The Campaign for the Constitution: Political Culture and the Ratification Contest. Nicole Eustace. Nicole Eustace is a professor of history at New York University, where she has leadership roles in both the history of women and gender program and the Atlantic history workshop.

A historian of the early modern Atlantic and the early United States, she specializes in the history of emotion. She has published essays on the "Kennewick Man," Hurricane Katrina, ruined banks, and images of everyday life from the s. She is coediting a volume of essays with Mia Bay on race and retail in the contemporary United States and is also working on a book on the history of natural history.

Her interest in feminism and antiwar activities led to her research on Goldman. The author of Love, Anarchy, and Emma Goldman , she is editing a four-volume collection of Goldman's papers, Emma Goldman: A Documentary History of the American Years , which includes Made for America, — , revised edition, , Making Speech Free, — , revised edition, , and Light and Shadows, — The forthcoming, final volume in the series, "Democracy Disarmed, —," traces the building of repressive legislation accompanying U.

Hamer and Elizabeth Hamer Kegan Award for excellence in increasing public awareness of a body of documents and in the Guardian named the series in its list of the top 10 best English-language books of radical history. The Internet Archive has digitized the collection of more than 22, documents and the accompanying guide. John Fea is a professor of history and chair of the history department at Messiah College in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. A scholar of early American history and American religious history, he is the author of several books, most notably Was America Founded as a Christian Nation?

His most recent book is Why Study History? His work has appeared in publications as wide-ranging as the Journal of American History and the Washington Post. He lectures at colleges and universities, historical societies, and religious organizations and blogs daily at www. Crystal N. A native of North Carolina, Crystal N.

Feimster is an associate professor in the African American studies department, the American studies program, and the history department at Yale University, where she teaches a range of courses in nineteenth- and twentieth-century African American history, women's history, and southern history. Downs and Kate Masur; and "Ida B. Her book Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching examines the roles of both black and white women in the politics of racial and sexual violence in the American South.

Ruth Feldstein. Ruth Feldstein is a professor of history and American studies at Rutgers University—Newark, where she teaches courses in U. She is currently an associate producer of "How It Feels to Be Free," a forthcoming documentary film series directed by Yoruba Richen and based on her book. Daniel Feller.

Daniel Feller is a Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, a professor of history, and the editor and director of the Papers of Andrew Jackson at the University of Tennessee. Click here for more information about Daniel Feller. Elizabeth Fenn. Fenn is now at work on a biography of Sakagawea. Click here for more information about Elizabeth Fenn. He has also written extensively on the political and military aspects of the American Revolution and the early republic, including the award-winning Almost a Miracle: The American Victory in the War of Independence His Whirlwind: The American Revolution and the War that Won It won the Fraunces Tavern Museum Book Award for the best book on the revolutionary period and was also recognized by Kirkus as one of the six best nonfiction books of the year.

Click here for more information about John Ferling. Sharla M. Fett is a professor of history at Occidental College in Los Angeles, working in the fields of nineteenth-century Atlantic World slavery, the antebellum U. South, and race, gender, and health. She has been a teaching partner with the Colored Conventions Project, founded by Gabrielle Foreman at the University of Delaware, and has edited a student-researched exhibit on California's conventions of the s and s, entitled "Equality Before the Law: California Black Convention Activism, Weyerhaeuser Book Award.

Prior to moving to Montana State, he was a founding member of the Public Lands History Center at Colorado State University and a participant in its Parks as Portals to Learning, a research and learning program based on environmental history that brings together faculty, students, and resource managers at Rocky Mountain National Park. His current research includes a book on conservation in the national parks. Click here for more information about Mark Fiege.

Barbara J. Fields is a professor of history at Columbia University where she has taught since Her research and teaching focus on nineteenth-century American southern and social history; the Civil War and Reconstruction; comparative history of emancipation; comparative social history of agriculture; comparative history of transitions to capitalism; slavery; and the art of interpretive writing. Her most recent book, written with her sister, the sociologist Karen E. Jill Fields is a professor of history and the founding coordinator of the Jewish studies certificate program at California State University, Fresno, where she teaches U.

Fields is currently writing "Fashion in World History" for the supplemental textbook series, Themes in World History , and developing a book-length project in the field of gender and Jewish cultural studies. Her recent article, "Was Peggy Guggenheim Jewish? Fields is also working with community activists to preserve Fresno's historic Fulton Mall.

Designed in by renowned modernist landscape architect Garret Eckbo and further enhanced by mosaics, fountains, and statues, the mall is one of few parks in downtown Fresno. Click here for more information about Jill Fields. Paul Finkelman. Paul Finkelman is the president of Gratz College. He has published more than fifty books, more than two hundred articles, and numerous op-eds on the law of American slavery, the First Amendment, American race relations, American legal history, the U.

Constitution, freedom of religion, and baseball and the law.

Manuscript Resources on The Civil War

He has lectured at the United Nations, throughout the United States, and in more than a dozen other countries, including China, Germany, Israel, and Japan. His work has been cited in four decisions by the U. Supreme Court and in many appellate briefs. Deborah K. Ellen Fitzpatrick. Click here for more information about Ellen Fitzpatrick.

Donald L. Michael W. Flamm has taught modern U. He has won several teaching awards and has served as a Fulbright scholar and senior specialist in Argentina. Click here for more information about Michael W. He also spent two years living on aircraft carriers in the Mediterranean Sea where he taught sailors of the U. Click here for more information about Neil Foley. Lacy K. Ford is dean of arts and sciences and a professor of history at the University of South Carolina, where he teaches nineteenth- and twentieth-century southern and U.

Ford also maintains a research focus on the economy of the modern South. Catherine Forslund. She teaches U. Her research interests include Vietnam War—era and other editorial cartoons. Thomas A. She went on to develop programs with the National Endowment for the Humanities to offer cultural events and discussions at union halls and working-class community centers. Women's studies and labor education influenced her thinking about working-class history, gender, and social movements.

In she began research on Out in the Union: A Labor History of Queer America , a history of collaboration between two vital movements in the twentieth century which was named a Choice outstanding academic title. She collected approximately one hundred oral histories from union activists, many of whom were speaking out at great risk to their personal safety and careers.

These activists' voices gave a human shape to the conventional documentation she found in archives: policy analyses, economic reports, newspaper clippings, and convention minutes. Her book's everyday witnesses narrate the deeply American events that brought two unlikely communities together to claim common ground. Steve Fraser is a historian, writer, and editor. His research and writing have pursued two main lines of inquiry: labor history and the history of American capitalism.

Ernest Freeberg. A Distinguished Professor of Humanities in the history department at the University of Tennessee, Ernest Freeberg specializes in American social and cultural history, with an emphasis on the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Debs, the Great War, and the Right to Dissent , a Los Angeles Times Book Prize finalist, examines the imprisonment of socialist leader Debs and the national debate prompted by demands for his amnesty.

Most recently, he is the author of The Age of Edison: Electric Light and the Invention of Modern America , which examines the impact of electric light on American culture. Joanne B. Freeman is a professor of history at Yale University. She specializes in the politics and political culture of early national and antebellum America. She has appeared in numerous television documentaries on pbs and the History Channel, and has served as an historical adviser for the National Park Service.

Her newest project is a book on physical violence in the U. Max Paul Friedman. Max Paul Friedman is a professor of history and an affiliate professor of international studies at American University. History and the A. Thomas Prize in Latin American Studies. Click here for more information about Max Paul Friedman. Marisa J. Fuentes is the Presidential Term Chair in African American History and an associate professor of women's and gender studies and history at Rutgers University. Her next project focuses on the seventeenth-century slave trade, capitalism, and captive disposability.

Brett Gadsden. Brett Gadsden is an associate professor of African American studies at Northwestern University and a historian of twentieth-century U. His first book, Between North and South: Delaware, Desegregation, and the Myth of American Sectionalism , chronicles the three-decades-long struggle over segregated schooling in Delaware, a key border state and important site of civil rights activism, education reform, and white reaction.

He has received fellowships and grants from the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Beverly Gage is a professor of twentieth-century U. Her work focuses on American politics and social movements, with an emphasis on the histories of radicalism, conservatism, and liberalism, and their influences on the modern state. Her current book project, "G-Man: J. Edgar Hoover and the American Century," is a biography of the former fbi director. In addition to her teaching and research, Gage has written for numerous journals and magazines, including the New York Times , the Washington Post , Slate , and the Nation.

He is a member of the Carter G. His interests include U. Mario T. He is also the recipient of the Oral History Association's Stetson Kennedy Vox Populi Award in recognition of his career of oral history scholarship in the service of social justice. He is a coeditor, with E. Click here for more information about Matt Garcia. Edith B. For thirty years, her research has focused on women in colonial America and especially on Abigail Adams and her family.

Most recently, Gelles is the editor of Abigail Adams: Letters She has also edited and written an extensive introduction to The Letters of Abigaill Levy Franks, , the earliest surviving corpus by a woman in the colonial western world. Gelles has taught American women's history as well as the survey of world history, and she has appeared on several television documentaries, including the recent cnn series on First Ladies.

He works on the twentieth-century United States, with a particular focus on how the United States periodically reconfigures its boundaries and national identity to open or close itself to immigrants and other minorities in its midst. He has been awarded many fellowships and has also been elected to the Society of American Historians. A historian and a lawyer, Malick W.

Ghachem is an associate professor of history at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a senior scholar at the University of Maine School of Law. He studies the history of colonial slavery and abolition in the Atlantic world of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, with a focus on Haiti Saint-Domingue. A member of the Massachusetts and New York bars, he has written widely on topics in American legal and constitutional history.

He is currently completing a book entitled "'In the Name of the Colony': The Revolt against the Indies Company in Haiti, —," which tells the story of the rise of the Haiti's large-scale sugar plantation economy through the lens of a creole rebellion against the French Indies Company. Click here for more information about Malick W. Judith Giesberg. She directs the project Last Seen: Finding Family after Slavery , which is digitizing "Information Wanted" advertisements placed in newspapers by African Americans looking for family members lost in slavery.

Click here for more information about Judith Giesberg. Paul A. His work focuses on the American Revolution and the early republic.